Newman referencing guide
 

*Attention Psychology students*

If you are a Psychology student then you will need to follow the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style.

Guidance on using the APA referencing style, including an online help forum can be found here. Alternatively you can email apa@newman.ac.uk

 

 

1. Academic Conventions

1.1 How should I present my work?

 

2. Ethical considerations

2.1 Referencing placement documents anonymously

 

3. Bibliographic Referencing

3.1 Why do we need to reference?

3.2 Which system of referencing does Newman use?

3.3 What are the different aspects of referencing?

3.4 In-text citation

3.4a In-text citation - multiple sources

3.4b In-text citation - multiple sources published in the same year by the same author

3.4c In-text citation - more than three authors

3.5 End-text citation

3.6 Secondary referencing

3.7 How should I set out quotations?

3.7a Making changes to quotations

3.7b Paraphrasing

3.7c Summarising

3.8 Reference list/bibliography conventions

3.9 Footnotes

 

4. Referencing examples

 

1. Academic Conventions

1.1 How should I present my work?

In general the University requires work to be produced on a computer (except for some mathematical assignments). You should ensure that you can use Microsoft Word or a similar word processing package.

You should include your student number and module code in headers and/or footers to enable identification of your work and all pages must be numbered. All (non-electronic) coursework should be submitted in a plastic wallet. For more information on submitting your work - both electronic and non-electronic - please look in the Student Handbook and relevant Moodle pages.

Guidance on the presentation of individual items of assessment will be provided in relevant module handbooks and from your tutors. In general however:

  • Use 2.5cm margins at the top, bottom, left and right of each page.
  • Use double line spacing in the main body of the assignment, and single line spacing in the reference list/bibliography, with a double space between each reference.
  • Use Tahoma, or if your PC doesn’t have this, an appropriate sans serif font such as Arial, in 12 point.

 

2. Ethical considerations

When undertaking research that involves children in schools or working with young people, confidentiality should be respected at all times. In accordance with Newman’s Ethical Guidelines, on no account should the real name of a school, teachers or children be used, without permission being obtained.

Studies must respect the privacy and psychological wellbeing of the individual participants. Photographs may only be used with the permission of all concerned. Advice should be taken from your supervisor on the appropriate storing and taking of images. Particular care must be taken in relation to photographs and images of children.

2.1 Referencing placement documents anonymously

If you need to reference a document or website related to your placement, then you need to ensure anonymity. Schools and other placement settings should be given code names; for example: 'Primary school one'.

As you can not include any information which may potentially identify the placement setting - such as web addresses - you will be unable to give full citations, so regardless of the format, you should only reference the author, date and title.

For example:

Primary school one (2012) Anti-bullying policy.

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3.Bibliographic Referencing

3.1 Why do we need to reference?

Referencing in academic writing has several purposes:

  • It allows a reader to identify and find the sources which have been used
  • It allows identification of the source of a particular quotation in your work
  • It can help you to avoid plagiarism

When writing a piece of academic work you need to provide full bibliographic details (author, title, publisher, date and place of publication, page numbers etc.) for all sources that have been used. To allow others to identify different parts of the reference, a standard and consistent structure and format is used to present the reference.

3.2 Which system of referencing does Newman use?

There are several different referencing systems in use by the academic community. We use the Harvard System, also known as the “author-date” system. If you check the internet or other sources for information about the Harvard system, you will find a number of variations in its use. This is why we have produced a guide to the version of Harvard we expect you to use at Newman, and you should also consult the following book:

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 10th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

3.3 What are the different aspects of referencing?

In the text of your written work you may need to refer to the ideas, theories, and opinions of other writers, or give direct quotations from sources which you have consulted. In each case, it is essential that you provide full details of the work referred to, or 'cited'.

In the Harvard referencing system, there are two parts of the process; In-text citations and End-text citation, as described in 3.4 In-text citation and 3.5 End-text citation below.

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3.4 In-text citation

From a point within the main text of your written work the abbreviated reference, or citation, directs the reader to the bibliography. To create an in-text citation the bibliographic details you need are:

  • Author’s name
  • Publication date for the work
  • Relevant page numbers

There are two different types of in-text citation:

When the author’s name occurs naturally in your writing:
If you are naming the author in your running text, put the date and page reference in round brackets:

Smith (2012, p. 47) argued that…

When the author’s name does not occur naturally in your writing:
If you are summarising an author’s work or not referring to the author directly in the running text, put all parts of the in-text citation in round brackets. If the citation is at the end of the sentence, put the full-stop after the reference:

...this was backed up in a recent study (Smith, 2012, p. 47).

3.4a In-text citation - multiple sources

If you need to refer to two or more publications at the same time, these can be listed separated by semicolons (;).

The publications should be cited chronologically by year of publication with the earliest date first. If more than one work is published in the same year then they should be listed alphabetically by author/ editor:

Recent environmental studies (Williams, 2007; Andrews, 2012; Martin and Richards, 2014) considered...

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3.4b In-text citation - multiple sources published in the same year by the same author(s)

Multiple publications published in the same year by the same author/ editor should be distinguished both in-text and in the reference list by allocating lower case letters in alphabetical order after the publication date:

In-text:

In his study of the work of Rubens, Miller (2006a, p. 18) emphasised the painter's mastery of drama in his larger compositions. However, his final analysis on this subject (Miller, 2006b, p. 143) argued that...

Reference list:

Miller, S. (2006a) The Flemish masters. London: Phaidon Press.

Miller, S. (2006b) Rubens and his art. London: Killington Press.

3.4c In-text citation - more than three authors

When citing publications by up to three authors or editors, all are listed:

In-text:

Recent educational research (Lewis and Jones, 2012) has shown that...

In a newly-published survey Hill, Smith and Reid (2010, p. 93) argue that...

For publications by more than three authors or editors, cite the first name listed in the work followed by et al. et al is from Latin and translates as "and others":

In-text:

New research on health awareness (Tipton et al., 2012, p. 124)...

Reference list:

Tipton, S., Smith, P., Holmes, D. and James, H. (2012) Health awareness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

NOTE All authors'/editors' names would be given in your reference list (no matter how many there are) so that each author or editor can receive credit for their research and published work.

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3.5 End-text citation

Gives full details of items cited in the text and directs the reader to the original source you are referring to.

See section 3.8 Reference list/bibliography conventions below, and look at the examples table for information on how to create this part of the reference.

In order to identify your sources clearly you will need to use both in-text citations and full references.

3.6. Secondary referencing

It is sometimes the case that you wish to refer to, or quote from, a source which you have not read yourself, but which has been cited in a work that you have consulted. This is called ‘secondary referencing’ as you have not read the original piece of work.

Wherever possible, you should always try and read the original because by quoting a secondary reference, you are relying on the author you are reading to give a fair reflection of the contents of the original work.

If you have to give a secondary reference in your work, you must make it clear that you have not read the original. Use a phrase such as'cited in' or 'quoted in' and give the page number on which your source cited that information. For example:

Harvey (2010, quoted in Lewis, 2012, p. 43) provides an excellent survey...

White's views on genetic abnormalities in crops (2011, cited in Murray, 2012) support the idea that...

If you have not read Harvey's or White's works yourself, you cannot include them in your reference list or bibliography. They would only appear as citations, as in the examples above.

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3.7. How should I set out quotations?

Quotations of up to 3 lines
Short quotations can be set in quotation marks (single or double, as long as you are consistent) and included in the body of the text. For example:

Nutbrown (2014, p. 36) suggests that 'continuity is an essential element of quality'.

Quotations of more than 3 lines
Longer quotations should be entered as a separate paragraph and indented from the main text, without quotation marks. For example:

 

3.7a Making changes to quotations

1. If you omit part of the quotation, this is indicated by using three dots... (called ellipsis):

'Drug prevention...efforts backed this up' (Gardner, 2007, p. 49).

2. If you want to insert your own words, or different words, into a quotation, put them in square brackets [ ]:

'In this field [crime prevention], community support officers...' (Higgins, 2008, p. 17).

3. If you want to point out an error in a quotation (for example, a spelling mistake) do not correct it; instead write [sic]:

Williams (2008, p. 86) noted that 'builders maid [sic] bricks'.

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3.7b Paraphrasing

When you paraphrase, you express someone else's writing in your own words, without using quotation marks, usually to achieve greater clarity. This is an alternative way of referring to an author's ideas or arguments without using direct quotations from their text. Used properly, it has the added benefit of fitting more neatly into your own style of writing and allows you to demonstrate that you really do understand what the author is saying. However, you must ensure that you do not change the original meaning and you must still cite and reference your source of information, including page numbers:

In-text:

Harrison (2007, p. 48) clearly distinguishes between the historical growth of the larger European nation states and the roots of their languages and linguistic development, particularly during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

3.7c Summarising

When you summarise, you provide a brief statement of the main points of an article, web page, chapter or book. This differs from paraphrasing as it only lists the main topics or headings, with most of the detailed information being left out. When you are summarising an article or chapter, there is no need to put page numbers in your in-text citations:


In-text:


Nevertheless, one important study (Harrison, 2007) looks closely at the historical and linguistic links between European races and cultures over the past five hundred years.

3.8 Reference list/bibliography conventions

You will be required to produce a reference list and/or a bibliography, at the end of your assignment.

The reference list only includes sources cited in the text of your assignment as in-text citations. A bibliography appears in the same format as a reference list, but it includes a list of all the sources you consulted for the assignment, and not just the ones you cited.

Please take note of the following conventions:

  • All appropriate elements of the reference should be included
  • Elements of the reference should be presented in the order identified by the system of referencing
  • References should be arranged in a single alphabetical sequence by the author or editor’s last name, or when there is no author, by title (for web pages with no apparent author or title, the URL should be used)
  • Do NOT include titles or qualifications in your references
  • You should include the authors surname, followed by the initial(s).
  • If no date can be identified, use (no date)
  • Edition statements should be given for all publications but NOT for the first edition:

    Blaxter, L., Hughes, C. and Tight, M. (2006) How to research. 3rd edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

  • Punctuation should be consistent for all references. There are particular conventions for usage. For example;
    • surname<comma> initials<full stop>
      e.g. Peters, W.R.
    • Place of publication<colon> Publisher<full stop>
      e.g. Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Capitalise only the first letter of the first word of the title and any proper nouns(with the exception of Journal and Newspaper titles):

    A history of Shakespearean England

3.9 Footnotes

This system of referencing does not support the use of footnotes. Should any subject areas wish to use them, the same applies as to those who want to use a different system; i.e. in accordance with Newman's General Academic Regulations, where a subject specialism dictates the use of an alternative scheme of referencing, this should be published in the relevant subject handbook.

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4. Referencing examples

The following table gives the citation order (the order in which the different elements of the reference should be given) and examples of different reference types. It includes most of the reference types you will use in your writing, but for other examples, please refer to:

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 10th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Books, including e-books
Printed books
Chapter/section of an edited book
E-books
E-books (read using e-reader, for example Kindle, Kobo)
Audiobooks
Translated books
Books in languages other than English
Collected works
Anthologies
Line of a poem/prayer within an anthology
Play
Dictionary
Encyclopedia article
Online reference book

Sacred texts
Bible
Torah
Qur'an

Journal articles and newspapers
Journal articles
Online only journals
Journal abstract
Newspaper articles

The internet
Webpages
Blogs/vlogs
Wikis
Social networking websites (for example Facebook, Twitter)
Mobile apps

Reports
Reports
Financial reports from online databases (FAME)
Market research reports from online databases (Market Line reports from Business Source Premier)

Visual sources
Paintings/drawings
Photographs - printed
Photographs - internet
Photographs in online collections (for example, Flickr, Instagram)
Book illustrations, figures, diagrams, logos and tables

Audiovisual sources
Television/radio programmes
Television/radio programmes viewed/heard on the internet (including Box of Broadcasts)
Television programme viewed on a streaming service (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)
Episodes of a television series
Episodes of a television series viewed on the internet (including Box of Broadcasts)
Episodes of a television series viewed on a streaming service (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)
Audio/video downloads
Audio CD
Films on DVD/Blu-ray
Films viewed on a streaming service (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)
Films viewed on Box of Broadcast (BoB)
YouTube video

Public communications
Lectures/seminars/webinars/PowerPoint presentations/video conferences
Electronic discussion groups and bulletin boards
Leaflets

Personal communications
Conversation/letter/email/telephone/Skype/text message/fax

Government publications
Departmental publications

Personal and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE), e.g. Moodle
PowerPoint presentation
Journal article
Text extracts from books digitised for use in VLEs

Unpublished and confidential information
Theses
Confidential information
Students' own work

Conferences
Individual conference papers
Conference papers published on the internet

Other sources
Interviews
Acts of parliament - pre 1963 Acts
Acts of parliament - post 1963 statutes
Bills (House of Commons or House of Lords)
British Standards

Books, including e-books

The increasing availability of e-books in identical form to print has rendered the distinction between the versions unnecessary. If the online source includes all the elements seen in the print versions (i.e. publication details, edition and page numbers), reference in the same way as print.

Printed books

  • Author/editor (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition (if not the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher

Example: book with one author

In-text:

According to Bell (2014, p. 23), the most important part of the research process is...

Reference list:

Bell, J. (2014) Doing your research project. 6th edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Example: book with two or three authors

In-text:

Goddard and Barrett (2015) suggested...

Reference list:

Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2015) The health needs of young people leaving care. Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies.

Example: book with more than three authors

In-text:

New research on health awareness (Tipton et al., 2008, p. 124)...

Reference list:

Tipton, S., Smith, P., Holmes, D. and James, H. (2008) Health awareness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Example: book with an editor

In-text:

The formation of professions was examined in Prest (2014)

Reference list:

Prest, W. (ed.) (2014) The professions in early modern England. London: Croom Helm.

Example: book with author(s) and editor(s)

In-text:

Caroline (2007) points out...

Reference list:

Caroline, N.L. (2007) Nancy Caroline's emergency care in the streets. Edited by Andrew N. Pollak, Bob Fellows and Mark Woolcock. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett.

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Chapter/section of an edited book

  • Author of the chapter/section (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of chapter/section (in single quotation marks)
  • ‘in’ followed by editor of book, followed by (ed.) or (eds.)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Page reference

In text:

The view proposed by Franklin (2002, p. 88)

Reference list:

Franklin, A.W. (2002) ‘Management of the problem’, in Smith, S.M. (ed.) The maltreatment of children. Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83-95.

NOTE actual page of reference is given in-text and the chapter page numbers are given in the reference list.

E-books

When an e-book looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, you should reference as a printed book.

E-books (read using e-readers, for example Kindle, Kobo)

On some personal e-devices specific e-book pagination details are often not available, so use the information you do have (loc, %, chapter/page), for example (Richards, 2012, 67%); (Winters, 2011, ch. 4, p. 12).

  • Author/editor (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication of book (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Edition (if not the first edition)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Downloaded: date)

In-text:

Arthur's argument with the council was interrupted by the Vogan Constructor Fleet (Adams, 1979, loc 876).

Reference list:

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Downloaded: 29 January 2013).

Audiobooks

  • Author/editor (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication/release (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Narrated by (if required)
  • Available at URL
  • (Downloaded: date)

In-text:

Covering 2000 years of medical history, Cunningham (2007)...

Reference list:

Cunningham, A. (2007) The making of modern medicine. Available at: http://www.audiogo.com/uk/ (Downloaded: 18 March 2013).

Translated book

  • Author/editor (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition (if not the first edition)
  • Translated by
  • Place of publication: publisher

In text:

In his biography of Bach, Schweitzer (1911, p. 32) considered...

Reference list:

Schweitzer, A. (1911) J.S.Bach. Translated by Ernest Newman. New York: Dover Publications.

Books in languages other than English

If referencing a book in its original language, give the title exactly as shown in the book.

  • Author/editor (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher

In text:

Her depiction of middle-class lifestyles (Beauvoir, 1966)...

Reference list:

Beauvoir, S. de (1966) Les Belles Images. Paris: Gallimard.

Collected works

  • Author/editor (surname, initials)
  • Year(s) of publication of collection (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Volumes (in round brackets)
  • Place of publication: publisher

In-text:

His collected works (Jung, 1989-1995) provide...

Reference list:

Jung, C.G. (1989-1995) Gesammelte Werke (24 vols). Olton: Walter Verlag.

Anthologies

  • Editor/compiler of anthology (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher

In-text:

In his collection of poems, West (1989)...

Reference list:

West, C. (compiler and illustrator) (1989) The beginner's book of bad behaviour. London: Beaver Books.

Line of a poem/prayer within an anthology

  • Author of the poem/prayer (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of poem/prayer (in single quotation marks)
  • 'in' plus author/editor/compiler of book
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Page reference

In-text:

'The lion made a sudden stop
He let the dainty morsel drop' (Belloc, 1989, p. 89).

Reference list:

Belloc, H. (1989) 'Jim', in West, C. (compiler and illustrator) The beginner's book of bad behaviour. London: Beaver Books, pp. 88-92.

Play

  • Author (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition (if not the first edition)
  • Edited by
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Act. Scene: line (in-text citation only)

In-text:

'I prithee do not mock me fellow student' (Shakespeare, 1980, 1.2:177).

Reference list:

Shakespeare, W. (1980) Hamlet. Edited by Spencer, T.J.B. London: Penguin.

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Dictionary

  • Title (in italics)
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Place of publication: Publisher

In-text:

The definition (Collins beginner's German dictionary, 2008, p. 21)...

Reference list:

Collins beginner's German dictionary (2008) New York: Collins.

Encyclopedia article

  • Author (surname, initials)
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of article (in quotation marks)
  • Title of encyclopedia (in italics)
  • Place of publication: Publisher

In-text:

'In genuine religion, we recognize God to be all good and all holy.' (Griffin, 2003, p. 650).

Reference list:

Griffin, M.D. (2003) 'Demonology', New catholic encyclopedia. 2nd edn. London: Gale.

Online reference book

  • Author/editor of book, followed by (ed.) or (eds.) if editor/sn
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of section/definition (in single quotation marks)
  • 'in' plus title of reference book (in italics)
  • Available at: URL of section/definition
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

The term 'multiculturalism' emerged in the 1960's in Anglophone countries (McLean and McMillan, 2009)

Reference list:

McLean, I. and McMillan, A. (eds.) (2009) 'Multiculturalism', in The concise Oxford dictionary of politics. Available at: http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t86.e853> (Accessed: 12 December 2011).r

Sacred texts

The Bible

(Theology students: please note that you do not need to put the Bible - or any other sacred text - in a bibliography or reference list. Please simply give a precise in-text reference as detailed below)

  • Book of the Bible
  • Chapter: verse
  • Version of the Bible

In-text:

The Beatitudes (Matthew 5: 3-12)...

Reference list:

Matthew 5: 3-12, Revised Standard Version of the Bible.

The Torah

(Theology students: please note that you do not need to put the Torah - or any other sacred text - in a bibliography or reference list. Please simply give a precise in-text reference as detailed below)

  • Torah
  • Book
  • Chapter: verse

In-text:

The reply (Shemot 3:14) is the most...

Reference list:

Torah. Shemot 3: 14.

The Qur'an

(Theology students: please note that you do not need to put the Qur'an - or any other sacred text - in a bibliography or reference list. Please simply give a precise in-text reference as detailed below)

  • Qur'an
  • Surah (or chapter): verse

In-text:

'He will guide them and amend their condition.' (Qur'an 47: 5)

Reference list:

Qur'an 47: 5.

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Journal articles and newspapers

Previously, distinctions were made between online and print versions of sources. The majority of journals and newspaper articles are available online, so the inclusion of some previous reference elements only serves to clutter the reference.

If you are specifically referencing the abstract of a journal article, your citation would make this clear, for example: The abstract highlights...(Rodgers and Baker, 2013, p. 34). Note that the reference would follow the same format as for a journal article, as the page reference above would take the reader to the abstract.

Journal articles

  • Author(s) (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of article (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of journal (in italics - capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
  • Issue information (volume, part number, month or season)
  • Page reference

In text:

The view proposed by Phillips (2006, p. 551)

Reference list:

Phillips, D. (2006) ‘Investigating policy attraction in education’, Oxford Review of Education, 32 (5), pp. 551-559.

NOTE actual page of reference is given in-text and the article page numbers are given in the reference list.

Online only journal articles

Journal articles that have only been published online often do not have volume and issue information or page numbers. In this case you should state that the journal is online only and include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number. In your in-text reference, if there is no page number, write 'no page number'.

  • Author (s) (surname, initial)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of article (in single quote marks)
  • Title of journal (in italics - capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
  • [Online only]
  • DOI

In text:

Panopticism as a technology of power is predicated on total and conscious visibility (Courtney, 2014, p. 5)

Reference list:

Courtney, S. J. (2014) 'Post-panopticism and school inspection in England', British Journal of Education [online only], DOI: 10.1080/01425692.2014.965806.

Newspaper articles

  • Author(s) (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of article (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of newspaper (in italics - capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
  • Edition if required (in round brackets)
  • Day and month
  • Page reference (if available)
  • Available at: URL (if required)
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

'There was some reluctance from potential asylum seekers to take part.' (Ward, 2005, p. 7).

Reference list:

Print:

Ward, L. (2005) ‘X-ray plan for young asylum seekers’ The Guardian, 05 January, p. 7.

Online:

Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria', The Guardian, 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draftresolution-90-days (Accessed: 9 September 2015).

When referencing a regional newspaper, include the edition to distinguish it from others with same title. For example:

In-text:

House prices fell by 2.1 per cent last month (Old, 2012).

Reference list:

Old, D. (2012) 'House price gloom', Evening Chronicle (Newcastle edn), 26 June, p. 25.

The internet

Webpages

  • Author/ organisation
  • Year that the page was published/last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title of webpage (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

For webpages where author and title can be identified:

In-text:

Burton (2012) provided information for the visit.

Reference list:

Burton, P.A. (2012) Castles of Spain. Available at: http://www.castlesofspain.co.uk/ (Accessed: 14 October 2015).

For webpages with organisations as authors:

In-text:

After identifying symptoms (National Health Service, 2015)...

Reference list:

National Health Service (2015) Check your symptoms. Available at: http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/checksymptoms (Accessed: 17 October 2015).

For webpages where no author can be identified, use the web page’s title:

In-text:

Illustrations of the house can be found online (Palladio's Italian villas, 2005).

Reference list:

Palladio's Italian villas (2005) Available at: http://www.boglewood.com/palladio/ (Accessed: 23 August 2015).

For webpages where no author or title can be identified, use the web page’s URL:

In-text:

Video files may need to be compressed (http://newmediarepublic.com/dvideo/compression.html, 2014).

Reference list:

http://newmediarepublic.com/dvideo/compression.html (2014) (Accessed: 14 July 2015).

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Blogs/vlogs

  • Author of message (surname, initial)
  • Year that message was posted (in round brackets)
  • Title of message (in quotation marks)
  • Title of internet site (in italics)
  • Day/month of posted message
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Shiela Webber (2010) noted that 'We found the majority of handouts in our sample placed more attention on the mechanics of preparing a research assignment...'

Reference list:

Webber, S. (2010) 'Assigning inquiry: how handouts for research assignments guide today's college students', Information literacy weblog, 20 July. Available at: http://information-literacy.blogspot.com/ (Accessed: 21 July 2010).

Wikis

  • Title of article (in single quotation marks)
  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title of internet site (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Telford introduced new techniques of bridge construction ('Thomas Telford', 2008).

Reference list:

'Thomas Telford' (2008) Wikipedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Telford (Accessed: 11 May 2010).

Social networking websites (for example Facebook, Twitter)

Example: Facebook

  • Author (surname, initials)
  • Year that the page was published/last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title of page (in italics)
  • Day/month of posted message
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

The campaign had over 7,000 members in less than one week (Tynemouth outdoor pool, 2012)

Reference list:

Tynemouth outdoor pool (2012) 29 August. Available at: http://www.facebook.com (Accessed: 31 August 2012).

Example: Twitter

  • Author (surname, initials)
  • Year that the page was last updated (in round brackets)
  • Day/month of posted message
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

One celebrity (Fry, 2012) tweeted messages of support.

Reference list:

Fry, S. (2012) 13 January. Available at: http://twitter.com/stephenfry (Accessed: 18 December 2012)

Mobile apps

Use the name of the producer of the app if available. If not use the title of the app as the first element.

  • Producer (if given)
  • Year of release/update (in round brackets)
  • Title of app (in italics and capitalise initial letters)
  • Edition (if given)
  • Version number - if given (in round brackets)
  • [Mobile app]
  • Available at: app store name
  • (Downloaded: date)

In-text:

RealPlayer Cloud (RealNetworks Inc., 2013) allows extra storage space to move, watch and store your videos.

Reference list:

RealNetworks Inc. (2013) RealPlayer Cloud. Kindle and Fire Phone edition. (Version 1.6.28) [Mobile app]. Available at: Amazon Appstore (Downloaded: 6 February 2016).

Reports

Reports

  • Author or organisation
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of report (in italics)
  • Place of publication: Publisher

OR if accessed on the internet:

  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

The minimum cost of living in Britain is £13,400 (Bradshaw, 2013, p. 32)

Reference list:

Bradshaw, J. (2013) A minimum income standard for Britain: what people think. Available at: http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2226-income-poverty-standards.pdf (Accessed: 3 July 2015).

Financial reports from online databases (FAME)

  • Publishing organisation
  • Year of publication/last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title of extract (in single quotation marks)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

BT's profit margin rose by over 2 per cent in the financial year 2010-2011 (Bureau van Dijk, 2012).

Reference list:

Bureau van Dijk (2012) 'BT Group plc company report'. Available at: http://fame.bvdep.com (Accessed: 5 January 2013).

Market research reports from online databases (Market Line reports from Business Source Premier)

  • Author or organisation
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of report (in single quote marks)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Market Line (2015) noted problems in the market...

Reference list:

Market Line (2015) 'Amazon UK Ltd'. Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com (Accessed: 20 October 2015).

Back to referencing examples

Visual sources

Paintings/drawings

  • Artist (surname, initials)
  • Year (if available)
  • Title of work (in italics)
  • Medium [in square brackets]
  • Institution or collection that houses the work, followed by the city

OR if seen online:

  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Works by Coello (1664) and Dali (1958)...

Reference list:

Coello, C. (1664) The triumph of St. Augustine [Oil on canvas]. Museo del Prado, Madrid.

Dali, S. (1958) Madonna [Oil on canvas]. Available at: http://www.oxfordartonline.com (Accessed: 09 July 2015).

Photographs - printed

  • Photographer (if known) (surname, initials)
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • [photograph]
  • Place of publication: Publisher (if available)

In-text:

The events in Winson Green that day were captured by Martin (1907).

Reference list:

Martin, P. (1907) Tram accident in Carver Street [Photograph]. Winson Green: Midland History Resource Centre.

Photographs - internet

  • Photographer (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of photograph (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

His beautiful photograph (Kitto, 2008)...

Reference list:

Kitto, J. (2008) Golden sunset. Available at: http://www.jameskitto.co.uk/photo_1827786.html (Accessed: 14 June 2008).

Photographs in online collections (for example Flickr, Instagram)

  • Photographer
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of photograph/video (or collection) (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed/downloaded: date)

Example: Flickr

In-text:

Chunyang Lin's (Solar ikon) recent work (2015)...

Reference list:

Lin, C. (2015) Green onion. Available at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/chunyang/4004866489/ (Downloaded: 13 June 2015).

Example: Instagram

In-text:

Fisher's collection of deconstruction photographs (2016)...

Reference list:

Fisher, D. (2016) deepbody. Available at https://instagram.com/deepbody/ (Accessed: 25 April 2016).

Book illustrations, figures, diagrams, logos and tables

  • Author of book (surname, initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Page reference of illustration, etc.
  • Illus./fig./diagram/logo/table

In-text:

Holbein's painting illustrated the prelate's ornate mitre (Strong, 1990, pp. 62-3).

Reference list:

Strong, R. (1990) Lost treasures of Britain. London: Viking, pp. 62-3, illus.

Back to referencing examples

Audiovisual material

Television/ radio programmes

  • Title of programme (in italics)
  • Year of transmission (in round brackets)
  • Name of channel
  • Date of transmission (day/ month)

In-text:

Salmond appeared confident on a televised debate (Scotland decides:Salmond versus Darling, 2014)...

Reference list:

Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling (2014) BBC Two Television, 25 August.

Television/radio programmes viewed/heard on the internet (including Box of Broadcasts)

  • Title of programme (in italics)
  • Year of original transmission (in round brackets)
  • Name of channel
  • Day and month of original transmission
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Technology offers the means to improve human ability (Redesigning the human body , 2006)...

Reference list:

Redesigning the human body (2006) BBC Radio 4, 25 September. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/redesigninghumanbody/ (Accessed: 15 June 2012).

Television programme viewed on a streaming service (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)

  • Title of programme (in italics)
  • Year of original transmission (in round brackets)
  • Available on (name of subscription service)
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Nina Simone recorded over 40 albums in her career (What happened, Miss Simone?, 2015)

Reference list:

What happened, Miss Simone? (2015) Available on Netflix UK (Accessed: 15 August 2015).

Episodes of a television series

  • Title of episode (in single quotation marks)
  • Year of broadcast (in round brackets)
  • Title of programme (in italics)
  • Series and episode numbers
  • Name of channel
  • Broadcast date (day/month)

In-text:

Some Daleks were mad and bad ('Asylum of the Daleks', 2012).

Reference list:

'Asylum of the Daleks' (2012) Doctor Who, Series 33, episode 1. BBC One Television, 1 September.

Episodes of a television series viewed on the internet (including Box of Broadcasts)

  • Title of episode (in single quote marks)
  • Year of transmission (in round brackets)
  • Title of programme/series (in italics)
  • Series and episode numbers (if known)
  • Name of channel
  • Day/month of transmission
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

The restoration of the lifeboat station was broadcast on Grand Designs ('Tenby', 2011).

Reference list:

'Tenby' (2011) Grand Designs, Series 7, episode 30, Channel 4 Television, 28 September. Available at: http://www.channel4.com/programmes/grand-designs/episode-guide/series-7/episode-30 (Accessed: 15 January 2012).

Episodes of a television series viewed on a streaming service (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)

  • Title of episode (in single quote marks)
  • Year of transmission (in round brackets)
  • Title of programme/series (in italics)
  • Series and episode number (if known)
  • Available on (name of subscription service)
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Piper Chapman is sent to prison for drug smuggling ('I wasn't ready', 2013).

Reference list:

'I wasn't ready' (2013) Orange is the new black, Series 1, episode 1. Available on Netflix UK (Accessed: 4 June 2014).

Audio/video downloads

  • Artist (if available; if not use title first)
  • Year of distribution
  • Title of recording (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Downloaded:date)

In-text:

Mr Brightside was a major success (The Killers, 2004).

Reference list:

The Killers (2004) Mr Brightside. Available at: http://www.apple.com/uk/itunes (Downloaded: 24 January 2013).

Back to referencing examples

Audio CD

  • Artist
  • Year of distribution (in round brackets)
  • Title of album (in italics)
  • [CD]
  • Place of distribution: Distribution company

In-text:

The singer's latest album, Aphrodite (2010) which was released earlier this year has been described as a triumph on the pop scene.

Reference list:

Minogue, K. (2010) Aphrodite [CD]. London: Parlophone.

Films on DVD/Blu-ray

  • Title of film (in italics)
  • Year of distribution (in round brackets)
  • Director
  • [DVD] or [Blu-ray]
  • Place of distribution (if known): Distribution Company

In-text:

The repetitive nature of everyday life has been the subject of some films, for example, Groundhog day (1993).

Reference list:

Groundhog day (1993) Directed by Harold Ramis [DVD]. Los Angeles: Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.

Films viewed on a streaming service, (for example Netflix, Amazon Prime)

  • Title of film (in italics)
  • Year of distribution (in round brackets)
  • Directed by
  • [Film]
  • Place of distribution (if known): distribution company
  • Available on (name of subscription service)
  • (Accessed:date)

In-text:

Special effects can dominate a film, for example The Matrix reloaded (2003).

Reference list:

The Matrix reloaded (2003) Directed by A. and L. Wachowski [Film]. Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc. Available on Netflix UK (Accessed: 15 January 2015).

Films viewed on Box of Broadcasts (BoB)

  • Title of film (in italics)
  • Year of distribution (in round brackets)
  • Directed by
  • [Film]
  • Place of distribution (if known): distribution company
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

You can look at films such as Hitchcock's The Birds (1963), to see how far special effects have developed.

Reference list:

The Birds (1963) Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film]. Universal pictures. Available at: http://bobnational.net/record/234816 (Accessed: 5 June 2015).

You tube video

  • Name of person/organisation posting video
  • Year video posted (in round brackets)
  • Title of film or programme (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

The video (Leponline, 2014)...

Reference list:

Leponline (2014) Ask the experts - plastering a wall. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9wpcellxCU (Accessed: 13 January 2016).

Public communications

Lectures/seminars/webinars/PowerPoint presentations/videoconferences

  • Author/speaker
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of communication (in italics)
  • Medium [in square brackets]
  • Module code: module title (if appropriate)
  • Institution (if appropriate)
  • Day/ month

In-text:

'It is important to understand the basics of referencing as soon as you start your studies' (Bennett, 2015).

Reference list:

Bennett, K. (2015) Referencing. [Information skills PowerPoint presentation]. Newman University. 25 October.

Back to referencing examples

Electronic discussion groups and bulletin boards

  • Author of message
  • Year of message (in round brackets)
  • Subject of the message (in quotation marks)
  • Discussion group or bulletin board (in italics)
  • Date posted: day/month
  • Available email: email address

In-text:

Debt cancellation was discussed by Peters (2013)...

Reference list:

Peters, W.R. (2013) 'International finance questions', British Business School Librarians Group discussion list, 11 March. Available email: lisbusiness@jiscmail.com.

Leaflets

Leaflets are unlikely to have all the citation elements, so include as much information as possible. It may also be useful to include a copy of a leaflet in an appendix to your assignment.

  • Author (individual or corporate)
  • Date (if available)
  • Title (in italics)
  • [Leaflet obtained...]
  • Date

In-text:

Lloyds TSB Bank plc (no date) provides insurance for mortgages.

Reference list:

Lloyds TSB Bank plc (no date) Mortgages. [Leaflet obtained in Newcastle branch], 4 June 2015.

Personal communications

Conversation/letter/email/telephone/Skype/text message/fax)

  • Sender/speaker/author
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Medium
  • Receiver of communication
  • Day /month

In-text:

Slater (2007) argued that 'the article was written from a Marxist perspective'.

Reference list:

Slater, H. (2016) E-mail to Brian Jones, 10 January.

Government publications

Departmental publications

  • Government department
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Place of publication: Publisher.

OR if viewed online:

  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Prison numbers increased last year (Ministry of Justice, 2007) as did the disparity in medical care (Department of Health, 2004; 2008).

Reference list:

Department of Health (2004) Primary medical services allocations 2004/05. Health Service Circular HSC 2004/003. London: Department of Health.

Department of Health (2008) Health inequalities: progress and next steps. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_085307 (Accessed: 18 June 2013).

Ministry of Justice (2007) Sentencing statistics (annual). Available at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/publications/sentencingannual.htm (Accessed: 3 June 2013).

NOTE: if you are referencing government publications from more than one country, include the country of origin (in round brackets) after the department name.

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Personal and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE), e.g. Moodle

PowerPoint presentations

  • Author or tutor
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of presentation (in quotation marks)
  • [PowerPoint presentation]
  • Module code: module title (in italics)
  • Available at: URL of VLE
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

There are two types of poverty - absolute and relative (Andrews, 2016).

Reference list:

Andrews, N. (2016) 'Understanding inequalities' [PowerPoint presentation]. HEU407: Health and social care around the world. Available at: http://moodle.newman.ac.uk/15-16/course/view.php?id=977 (Accessed: 15 January 2016).

Journal article

For journal articles where you have all the required elements for the reader to track the article down, you should simply cite and reference the article the same way you would a normal journal. If it is an extract from a journal, follow the example below for 'Text extracts'.

Text extracts from books digitised for use in VLEs

  • Author
  • Year of publication of book (in round brackets)
  • Extract title (in single quotation marks)
  • in
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher (if available)
  • Page numbers of extract
  • Module code: module title (in italics)
  • Available at: URL of VLE
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

'Pragmatics is another broad approach to discourse' (Schiffrin, 1994).

Reference list:

Schiffrin, D. (1994) 'Pragmatics', in Approaches to discourse. London: Blackwell, pp. 190-231. ENU408: Introduction to language and literature. Available at: http://moodle.newman.ac.uk/15-16/course/view.php?id=1226 (Accessed: 16 January 2016).

Unpublished and confidential information

Theses

  • Author
  • Year of submission (in round brackets)
  • Title of thesis (in italics)
  • Degree statement
  • Degree awarding body

If viewed online:

  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

Research by Tregear (2013) and Parsons (2014)...

Reference list:

Parsons, J.D. (2014) Nutrition in contemporary diet. PhD thesis. Durham University. Available at: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/846 (Accessed: 14 August 2015).

Tregear, A.E.J. (2013) Speciality regional foods in the UK: an investigation from the perspectives of marketing and social history. Unpublished PhD thesis. Newcastle University.

Confidential information

  • Anonymised institution/agency
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of document (in italics)

In-text:

The school has very clear guidelines on how to deal with cyber bullies (Secondary school one, 2013)

Reference list:

Secondary school one (2013) Anti-bullying policy.

Students' own work

  • Student name
  • Year of submission (in round brackets)
  • Title of essay/assignment (in single quotation marks)
  • Module code: module title (in italics)
  • Institution
  • Unpublished essay/assignment

In-text:

The topic of the essay (Sanders, 2015)...

Reference list:

Sanders, M. (2015) 'Critical analysis of the airline industry: focus on British Airways', BEU401: Self-leadership and academic skills. Newman University. Unpublished assignment.

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Conferences

Individual conference papers

  • Author of paper
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of paper (in quotation marks)
  • Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)
  • Location and date of conference
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Page references for the paper

In-text:

Cook (2000) highlighted examples of the developments...

Reference list:

Cook, D. (2000) ‘Developing franchised business in Scotland’, Small firms: adding the spark: the 23rd ISBA national small firms policy and research conference. Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen 15-17 November. Leeds: Institute for Small Business Affairs, pp. 127-136.

Conference papers published on the internet

  • Author of paper
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of paper (in quotation marks)
  • Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)
  • Location and date of conference
  • Publisher
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

According to Conole (2010) 'the sheer variety of new technologies available now is bewildering . '

Reference list:

Conole, G. (2010) 'Current challenges in learning design and pedagogical patterns research' Seventh international conference on networked learning, Denmark 3rd and 4th May. Open University. Available at: http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fss/organisations/netlc/past/nlc2010/abstracts/Conole.html (Accessed: 22 July 2010).

Other sources

Interviews

  • Name of person interviewed
  • Year of interview (in round brackets)
  • Title of the interview (if any) (in single quotation marks)
  • Interview with/interviewed by
  • Interviewer's name
  • Title of publication or broadcast (in italics)
  • Day and month of interview, page numbers (if relevant)

Example: newspaper interview

In-text:

Riley (2008) believed that 'imagination has to be captured by reality'.

Reference list:

Riley, B. (2008) 'The life of Riley'. Interview with Bridget Riley. Interviewed by Jonathan Jones for The Guardian, 5 July, p. 33.

Example: television interview

In-text:

The prime minister avoided the question (Blair, 2003).

Reference list:

Blair, A. (2003) Interviewed by Jeremy Paxman for Newsnight, BBC Two Television, 2 February.

OR if published on the internet add:

  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

Example: internet interview

In-text:

The Democrat appeared confident in the discussion (Obama, 2008).

Reference list:

Obama, B. (2008) Interviewed by Terry Moran for ABC News, 19 March. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Nightline/Vote2008/Story?id=4480133 (Accessed: 16 June 2008).

Back to referencing examples

Acts of parliament - Pre-1963 Acts

  • Title of Act and year (in italics)
  • Regnal year
  • Name of Sovereign
  • Chapter number

In-text:

With the Act of Supremacy 1534 (26 Hen. 8, c. 1)...

Reference list:

Act of Supremacy 1534 (26 Hen. 8, c. 1).

Acts of parliament - Post-1963 Acts

  • Title of Act including year and chapter number (in italics)
  • County/jurisdiction (only if referencing more than one country's legislation)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text:

In chapter 7 of recent social care legislation (Health and Social Care Act 2012)...

Reference list:

Health and Social Care Act 2012, c. 7. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2012/7/contents/enacted (Accessed: 23 August 2012).

Bills (House of Commons or House of Lords)

  • Parliament. House of...
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Bill number (in brackets)
  • Place of publication: publisher

In-text:

Haulage companies expressed concern about the provisions of the Transport Bill (Parliament. House of Commons, 1999).

Reference list:

Parliament. House of Commons (1999) Transport Bill (Bills 1999-2000 8). London: The Stationery Office.

British standards

  • Name of authoring organisation
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Number and title of standard (in italics)
  • Place of publication: Publisher

In-text:

Loft conversions are subject to strict controls (British Standards Institute, 1989).

Reference list:

British Standards Institute (1989) BS5268-7.4: Structural use of timber: ceiling binders. London: British Standards Institute.

 

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Last updated 09/03/17